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Anti-idiotype Antibody

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Research Progress in Anti-idiotype Antibody
Unique position is that of a single antigen determinant in antibody molecules V region.The region can be a variable area,and also can be a skeleton region.In 1974, Denmark immunologist Jerne according to specific understanding of modern immunity molecular to antibody molecules,put forward a famous unique type--- anti-idiotype network theory on the basis of Burnet’s "clonal selection theory" .This theory can be summarized that idiotype antibody (Ab1) can produce specific antibody (Ab2).And Ab2 can also produce along with Ab3, Ab4 antibody and Ab5 antibody etc.Thus there forms a mutual restraint, mutual linkage,balanced, multilayer network structure.The material basis for the network structure is the idiotype and anti-idiotype.So idiotype antibody (idiotype, Id) is different from the general antigen.It has its immunogenicity itself.While anti-idiotype antibody (anti-idiotype antibody, Anti-Id) is antibody produced result of its unique quality.
Classification of anti-idiotype antibody.
AB2α:It is in Ab1 the antibody produced by idiotype determinants away from the antigen binding site.It can identify unique position associated with the skeleton structure in Abl.Due to this unique position is out of Abl ligand.,its combining with Ab1 did not affect the combination of Ab1 and Ab1 antigen.Ab2α has a regulatory role to promote or inhibit Ab1 clone.
Ab2γ:It is not the image of antigens.Homologous organism usually produces Ab2γ.It can inhibit the initial antigen sites binding with Abl table.
Ab2ε:It is a rare type bispecific Ab2,and related to rheumatoid factor (RF).The latter appears in rheumatoid arthritis and autoimmune diseases.It is a antibody produced together by idiotype determinants far away from antigen binding sites and in the sites.It has double functions.It can combines both Ab1 Fab fragment and Ab1 fragment.It can identify the antigenic determinant in Ab1 skeleton region.At the same time it can also identify the cross reactive epitope structure antigen.The anti-idiotype antibodies may have significance for the study of autoimmune diseases.
AB2β:The unique type antigen identified by this kind of Anti-Id is similar to hapten.So it can replace hapten to stimulate the production of Ab1, but it can also be inhibited combining with hapten completely and Ab1, it is the external image which antigen in immune system.
Anti-idiotype antibody preparation
At present, there are mainly three kinds of methods to prepare anti-Id.The first one is based on the anti-idiotype antibody preparation process.It mainly divides into two categories: one step immunoassay and two steps immunoassay.The second one is based on the types of immunological antibody, it mainly divides into the multiple cloning technology, Anti-Id technology and Anti-Id monoclonal antibody library technology.The third one divides the preparation of anti-idiotype antibody into cell engineering and gene engineering in two ways.The distinction of these three kinds of methods differs from any one.but they are the same according to the anti-idiotype antibody. This paper adopts the second kind of method for the analysis of Ab2 preparation for Ab2.

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